Strategies for Declarative Knowledge Instruction
Declarative knowledge strategy is a strategy to help in the understanding of specific content. There are several words to use when creating these strategies; explain, describe, summaries and list. There are also three types of slightly different sub groups within declarative knowledge. Labels and names (pairing information) facts and lists (learned together) and organized discourse (tied to existing knowledge). This type of instruction helps to create meaningful learning by memorizing facts.
As I read through this chapter I reexamined a major part missing in todays educational curriculum. I find that math had become more about conceptual learning, and group differentiation as declarative knowledge strategies are looked over. I believe that as educators we can not over look declarative knowledge. Geology of the world is another area the reading touched on to be lacking. I agree and feel that working with strategy that pinpoint learning areas with lists, pairing and good ole’ memorization is needed to produce effective curriculum and instructional design.
Strategies for Instruction Leading to Concept Learning
If one is learning concepts, they are learning about the idea of the lesson ,not the black and white definition that has been memorized out of the book, as that would be declarative knowledge. To lead to successful concept learning the designer needs to know there are abstract concepts as well as concrete concepts. Some concepts can be hard to categorize. Instruction leading to concept learning requires the ability to generalize (but not over generalize) and then to discriminate the differences within concepts learned. There are tow major strategies used, leading to concept learning. There is the inquiry approach that teaches by examples and the expository approach that also gives examples but also leads to discussion.
I thought about my nephew as I read this as I started to relate to his conceptual learning abilities. I have seen him many times over generalizing the concept of balls. When he was introduced to the concept of balls soon everything was a ball. I did not know he was actually learning about concepts, and how he was processing it until reading this chapter. It thought it was important to teaching instruction to help conceptual learning by helping learners stay between generalizing and over generalizing the concepts being presented. This will be important to learning but the strategies for declarative knowledge and concept learning should be separate because they are so similar.
Strategies for Instruction to Learning Procedures
To create successful strategies for instruction to learning procedures; first, the designer must write out a list to clarify where the lesson needs to go.of straight forward teaching demonstrations are used. There are simple and complex procedures that are needed. Using
simple strategies are strait forward unlike complex procedures that contain many systematic steps in order to create a successful plan.
I thought about the time I spend writing lesson plans and how it would help me to outline and list the areas that I would like to focus on. Ido not think I do a good job in this area. I feel when I do lessons or when I teach, I lack the structure that this strategy could bring. I think I get lost or side tracked in my writing and by listing out my objectives and following a more systematic plan the design I am working on can be made better.
Strategies for Instruction Leading to Principle Learning
Principles of education cross all subjects. Principals describe the relationships between the concepts. Some of the statutes that can be used for instruction are nemonic devices as well as illustrations or diagrams created to show the contents connestion. Review is also key to leading to principle learning.
I think using vin diagrams would be a great way to incorporate the principles of learning in instructional design.
Thinking through this strategy I enjoy the way visual aid is used to lead to learning. Principle learning helps to consolidate learning to help see the bigger picture as well as building strong connections between the principle that is being learned, synthesizing the lessons content.
Strategies for Problem-Solving Instruction
Problem solving is the ability to used procedures and principles to assess and answer questions. There are well defined strategies as well as ill defined strategies which have more than one solution. Strategies may vary depending on the definition of the problem posed. Learners Prior knowledge is important to take into consideration as well as creating clear systematic instructions.
In light of this information I feel that I have not given the learners of my instructional plan enough motivation to learn. I need to create a more interesting proposal. I may have each learner choose their own topic of interest to create a Power Point on. This may give the learners something they would show more motivation about. I must also be very careful to create effective systematic lessons.
Strategies for Cognitive Strategy Instruction
In order to create successful strategies for cognitive strategy instruction we need to look at both the learning strategies and thinking strategies. Thinking strategies are used to help generate ideas. where as learning strategies do not lead to long term learning but more of a recall of information. Guided participation, observation, discovery as well as guided discovery are dome of the Strategies that are used for cognitive strategy instruction.
This was an interesting chapter. I found it useful for my own learning as a teacher. Although I did know about Cognitive strategy I found it will help to look deeper into my lesson creations to help learner success. Using strategies to generate ideas by using guided participation is exactly how I will be creating my lesson this chapter gave me more perspective on why and how it will help learners. Practice evaluation and feedback should also be used as a strategy for cognitive instruction.
Strategies for Attitude Learning
Attitude may be one of the most important areas when it comes to learning. Some strategies to adjust attitudes of learners would be to use reinforcements as the learners show the desired behavior. This will help to create a learning community. A second strategy would be role – playing. Role play with students is a great way to let peers show each other what is and is not acceptable in a learning environment.
Wow! This was my favorite chapter so far. I thought about all of the problems that I have had in classroom management and how I use these strategies to create an environment conducive for learning. I have the children role play and it works very well. The students pretend they are the administration at the beginning of the school year and create the class rules. They create them so they follow therm as well as held accountable by the others in the class. This should be brought into the lesson early as the teachers should have a attitude in check before teaching the lessons.
Strategies for Psychomotor Learning
Grab the students attention and keep it. This means creating an environment that will not pose distractions. The second thing that needs to be provided is an outline of where the lesson is going. This will give the learner the ability to set cognitive goals. This can be given in the introduction of the lesson so the student knows where the lesson is going.
This is how I start all of my lessons. However creating an effective learning environment can vary from student to student therefore while creating it the teacher should keep each learning type in mind. I can relate to using this in my classes; however, I did not know how important letting students know where the lesson is going by giving them a purpose. I think I have always stated the purpose but I never realized how important it was to learner success.